Treatment of cavernous tuberculosis is carried out in a hospital tuberculosis dispensary, since at this stage the patient releases a large amount of the pathogen into the environment. In other words, cavernous tuberculosis is one of the varieties of acute or open form of tuberculosis.
Any newly diagnosed tuberculosis or its acute form is treated with four main drugs from different groups of antimycotic antibiotics. Since the open form of tuberculosis requires rather stringent measures, these drugs can be administered in addition to the vein - intrabronchially or even directly inside the cavity to ensure the maximum concentration in the area of inflammation.
To prevent the development of pulmonary failure due to loss of elasticity, breathing exercises and physiotherapy are prescribed, which also enhances the effect of medications. laser therapy, ultrasound and inductothermy. In addition to the main drugs, it is possible to prescribe fluoroquinols - synthetic antibiotics with a very broad spectrum of action and kanamycin, if there is a suspicion that the pathogen is resistant to previously prescribed drugs.
If the course is favorable, the first positive results will appear within 4-6 months. Bacterial excretion will stop, the cavity will close or its size will significantly decrease. If progress in treatment is not observed after this period, then surgical intervention is carried out with the removal of part of the lung or the application of artificial pneumothorax - pumping air into the pleural cavity, due to which not only the lung itself will shrink, but also the cavity.
Cavernous pulmonary tuberculosis is a disease in which cavities (cavities from two to 5 cm) form on the lung tissue. At first, its symptoms are mild. the patient feels weak and coughs periodically. The cough with cavernous tuberculosis is wet, a small amount of sputum comes out of the lungs. As the disease progresses, hemoptysis occurs. To identify this form of tuberculosis, it is necessary to carry out x-rays, an analysis that helps identify MBT in mucus, and several other procedures. If the diagnosis is confirmed, the patient is hospitalized.
General information about the disease, possible complications.
Fibrous-cavernous tuberculosis manifests itself in multiple foci. The danger of the disease is that it can lead to extensive damage to the lung (cirrhotic form). As a result of this disease, the connective tissue grows, the lung takes on unnatural contours - it becomes wrinkled.
A cavity is formed after a cavity appears in the inflammatory focus with contents in the form of necrotic tissue. When exposed to proteolytic enzymes, the necrotic mass becomes liquid, leaving behind a cavity. If there is a malfunction in the functioning of the bronchi, the cavity accumulates not air, but liquid.
This formation includes pyogenic and granulation fragments, as well as epithelial cells. It is located in a capsule consisting of connective tissue. A patient with a cavernous form is diagnosed with a single cavity. This type of formation does not undergo inflammatory reactions and does not provoke fibrotic changes in the lungs.
The cavities vary in size. Small ones do not exceed a size of 2 cm, the diameter of medium ones is 2–4 cm, large ones reach a size of 5.5 cm. Clinical signs of the cavernous form.